Estate Planning 101

How Long Does Probate Take in Mississippi?

In this article, we'll cover the topics that impact the length of probate in Mississippi, including complexity and value of the estate, guardianship, trusts, not having a Will, and claims from creditors or family members.
September 13, 2023

Are you an executor or trustee?

Snug can help you get organized by providing one place to store and analyze Wills, Trusts, and other essential documents. You can inventory finances, personal property, digital assets, insurance, and more.
Get started for free

Want to get organized?

Snug can help you organize all of life's details by providing one place to store and analyze Wills, Trusts, and other essential documents. You can inventory finances, personal property, digital assets, insurance, and more.
Get started for free

Want to offer estate planning?

Snug is a complete estate planning solution built for Financial Advisors who want to save time and offer their clients more. Whether you have an UHNW client who needs their documents analyzed or a mass affluent client getting their first Trust, we can help.
Get started for free

Need a Will or Trust?

Snug makes it easy to create a Will or Trust in under 20 minutes. Powers of Attorney and Health Care Directives are included for free with any Will or Trust, as is a year of free updates.
Get started for free

The question of how long the probate process takes is a common one among individuals navigating estate planning. The timeline for probate in Mississippi, as in other jurisdictions, can vary widely based on several factors, such as the size and complexity of the estate, whether or not there is a valid will, and the efficiency of the executor or personal representative. On average, probate in Mississippi can take anywhere from several months to over a year. In this blog post, we will delve into the factors that impact the length of the probate process in Mississippi and provide some practical tips for navigating it efficiently.

The more complex and valuable the estate, the longer things are likely to take:

In Mississippi, the complexity and value of an estate can significantly impact the length of the probate process. This is largely due to the need to identify, locate, and value various types of assets, manage potential debts and tax obligations, and handle any potential disputes among beneficiaries or heirs. For instance, if the deceased owned real estate in multiple states, each property may need to be probated separately in its respective jurisdiction, which can increase the complexity and duration of the process.

Furthermore, certain types of assets, such as businesses, can add to the complexity. If the deceased owned a business, additional steps may be necessary to value the business, transfer ownership, or even sell it. These steps can be time-consuming and may require specialized legal and financial expertise.

In Mississippi, there are also non-probate assets to consider. These are assets that transfer automatically upon the owner's death, outside of the probate process. Examples include life insurance policies, retirement accounts, and properties held in joint tenancy. While these assets can help expedite the probate process, identifying, locating, and managing them can still take time.

Another factor that can lengthen the probate timeline is the estate's value. In Mississippi, if an estate is valued over $50,000, it will likely need to undergo formal probate, which is a more complex and lengthy process than informal probate. This formal probate process requires the executor to file an inventory of the estate's assets with the court within 90 days of their appointment, which can be a time-consuming task for large or complex estates.

If the deceased died “intestate” (that means they didn’t have a will), probate usually takes a lot longer:

When a person dies without a valid will, they are said to have died "intestate". In such cases, the estate is distributed according to Mississippi's intestacy laws, which can add significant time to the probate process. The intestacy process in Mississippi follows a specific hierarchy of heirs. If the deceased is survived by a spouse and children, the estate is split among them. If there are no surviving children or spouse, the estate goes to the deceased's parents, and if they are not alive, it goes to siblings, and so on down the line of kinship.

Without a will to provide clear instructions, determining who gets what can become a contentious issue among surviving family members. This can lead to legal disputes, which can dramatically slow down the probate process and even result in court intervention.

Additionally, intestacy necessitates the appointment of an administrator for the estate, a role similar to the executor in a will. However, without a will to specify who should take on this role, the court will need to appoint someone. This can be a time-consuming process, particularly if multiple parties express interest in serving as the administrator or if there are disagreements about who is best suited for the role.

The administrator's responsibilities in an intestate estate are also typically more involved, which can add to the duration of probate. They must identify and inventory all of the deceased's assets, pay any debts and taxes, and distribute the remaining assets according to Mississippi's intestacy laws. This can be a complex and time-consuming process, particularly if the deceased's financial affairs were not well-organized.

If trusts are involved, the process is usually slower:

Trusts are often used as a tool to bypass the probate process, but they can also slow it down when they are part of an estate undergoing probate. This is largely due to the complexities involved in managing and distributing the assets held in the trust.

A trust is a legal arrangement where one person (the settlor) transfers assets to a trust, which is managed by another person (the trustee) for the benefit of a third person (the beneficiary). When the trustor passes away, the assets in the trust do not need to go through probate because they technically belong to the trust, not the deceased. However, this doesn't mean they're free from complications.

One of the main reasons why trusts can slow down the probate process is because they often require careful administration. The trustee must manage and distribute the trust's assets in accordance with the trustor's wishes, as outlined in the trust agreement. This can be a time-consuming and complex task, particularly if the trust contains a variety of assets or if the distribution instructions are intricate.

Furthermore, if the trust was not set up correctly or if there are questions about its validity, disputes can arise. These disputes can take a considerable amount of time to resolve, particularly if they end up in court. In extreme cases, the entire trust may even need to be probated, which can significantly extend the timeline.

Another factor that can complicate the probate process is the presence of multiple trusts. If the deceased had a number of different trusts, each one will need to be administered separately. This can be a lengthy and complex process, particularly if the trusts have different trustees, beneficiaries, or distribution instructions.

In Mississippi, trusts can also impact the probate process due to tax issues. Trusts are subject to different tax rules than estates, and navigating these rules can be complex and time-consuming. Depending on the size and nature of the trust, it may be necessary to hire a tax professional to ensure everything is handled correctly.

Matters of guardianship will also slow down the probate process:

When a deceased individual leaves behind minor children, the probate process often becomes more complicated and lengthy. The reason for this is the need to determine and establish guardianship for the minors, a process that can significantly slow down probate proceedings.

In Mississippi, if a parent passes away and the other parent is already deceased or deemed unfit, a guardian needs to be appointed for any minor children. If the deceased left a will, they likely named a guardian for their children. However, even if a guardian is named in the will, the court still has the final say and must approve the choice of guardian, ensuring that it is in the best interest of the children.

If no guardian has been named in a will, or if the deceased died intestate, the court must select a suitable guardian. This can lead to potential disputes if multiple family members or friends wish to be appointed as the guardian. Such disputes can prolong the probate process as the court takes time to review each potential guardian's suitability.

Furthermore, the guardian may need to establish a guardianship estate if the minor inherits assets. The guardian must manage these assets on behalf of the minor until they reach the age of majority, and this process requires court oversight. Setting up a guardianship estate involves additional court proceedings, paperwork, and potentially, legal fees, all of which can delay the overall probate process.

In addition, it's worth noting that the court will likely require the guardian to post a bond. This is a type of insurance policy that protects the minor's inheritance in case the guardian mismanages or misappropriates the funds. Securing a bond can take time and may add another layer of complexity to the probate process.

Claims on the estate — either from creditors or other family members — can make things take a lot longer:

When an individual passes away, their estate may be subject to various claims, primarily from creditors and potential heirs. Both types of claims can significantly extend the duration of the probate process.

In Mississippi, the law requires that the personal representative of the estate notify all known creditors of the decedent's death. The creditors then have a specific period, generally 90 days from the notification to file their claims against the estate for any outstanding debts.

Dealing with creditors can be a lengthy process. The personal representative must validate each claim before paying it. If the estate lacks sufficient funds to cover all debts, the personal representative must follow the state's order of priority to determine which debts to pay. This can be a complex and time-consuming process, particularly if the estate is insolvent or if there are disputes over the validity of certain claims.

Claims from family members or other potential heirs can also delay the probate process. Sometimes, long-lost relatives or unexpected heirs may emerge after a person's death, claiming a right to a portion of the estate. Alternatively, family members may dispute the validity of the will, alleging that it was forged, created under undue influence, or that the decedent was not of sound mind when they made it.

Resolving these disputes can take considerable time and may even involve court proceedings. If a will contest goes to trial, it can significantly extend the probate process, sometimes by several years. Even if the dispute is resolved out of court, the negotiations can still add months to the probate timeline.

The probate process — and how long each stage takes:

The probate process in Mississippi, like many legal procedures, is methodical and consists of several stages. When trying to estimate how long probate might take, it's helpful to understand each of these steps and the typical time each one might require. However, remember that these are just estimates, and the actual timeline can vary significantly based on the factors previously discussed.

  1. Opening the Estate: The probate process begins with filing a petition to open the estate with the chancery court in the county where the decedent lived. This step usually happens within a month or so after the individual's death. The court then appoints a personal representative, also known as an executor or administrator, who is responsible for managing the probate process.
  2. Notification of Heirs and Creditors: The personal representative is required to notify all potential heirs and known creditors of the decedent's death. This can take a few weeks to a few months, depending on the number of parties involved.
  3. Inventory and Appraisal: The personal representative must then inventory the decedent's assets and have them appraised to determine their value. This is a critical step as it impacts everything from tax obligations to the distribution of assets among heirs. Depending on the complexity and size of the estate, this process can take several months.
  4. Payment of Debts and Taxes: The personal representative uses the estate's funds to pay off any outstanding debts and taxes. In Mississippi, creditors have 90 days from the notification to file claims against the estate. Resolving all claims can take several more months, depending on the number and complexity of the claims.
  5. Distribution of the Remaining Assets: After all debts and taxes have been paid, the personal representative can distribute the remaining assets to the heirs according to the decedent's will or Mississippi's intestacy laws if there is no will. This process can take a few weeks to a few months, depending on the number of heirs and the types of assets involved.
  6. Closing the Estate: Finally, the personal representative must prepare a final accounting, showing all payments and distributions made from the estate. Once the court approves this accounting, the estate can be officially closed. This final step can take a few weeks to a few months.

What to do if your executor isn’t moving probate along properly:

If you're a beneficiary and you believe the executor of the estate is not fulfilling their duties appropriately, there are steps you can take. In Mississippi, executors have a fiduciary duty to manage the estate in the best interest of the beneficiaries, which includes completing the probate process in a timely and efficient manner. If the executor fails to meet these obligations, you can raise your concerns with the court.

The first step is usually to discuss your concerns directly with the executor. They may be able to address your concerns or provide information that clarifies the situation. However, if this doesn't resolve the issue, you can file a formal complaint with the court.

In your complaint, you'll need to provide evidence of the executor's shortcomings. This might include instances of negligence, mismanagement of estate assets, or failure to communicate important information about the probate process. The court will review your complaint and, if it finds merit, may take several actions.

The court could order the executor to provide a detailed account of their actions and the status of the estate. In more severe cases, where the executor has seriously mismanaged the estate or acted in bad faith, the court may remove them and appoint a new executor.

Remember, removing an executor is a serious step and typically a last resort. The court will usually only consider this if there's clear evidence of misconduct or an inability to fulfill the executor's duties.