Estate Planning 101

How Long Does an Executor Have to Settle an Estate in North Dakota

In this article, we'll look at how long an Executor has to settle an estate in North Dakota. We'll look at the milestones and due dates, as well as factors that impact timelines and how to know when an estate is officially 'settled'.)
October 6, 2023

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The process of settling an estate, also known as probate, is an important responsibility that falls upon the executor, also referred to as the personal representative, following the death of a loved one. In North Dakota, this involves validating the deceased's will, creating an inventory of their assets, paying off any existing debts and taxes, and finally, distributing the remaining assets to the beneficiaries as outlined in the will. The timeline for this process can vary considerably, typically ranging from several months to over a year, depending on factors such as the estate's size and complexity, the clarity of the will, and whether or not the probate process is contested.

The Estate Settlement Timeline:

Settling an estate in North Dakota is a multi-stage process, each with its own general timeline. To provide a comprehensive understanding of how long the entire process might take, we'll break down each stage:

  1. Submitting the Will: In North Dakota, the executor is required to submit the will to probate court as soon as reasonably possible after the death of the testator (the person who made the will). While there isn't a specific deadline set by North Dakota law, it's generally advised to do this within a month to prevent potential delays in the probate process.
  2. Inventorying the Estate: Once the will has been submitted, the executor must compile a comprehensive inventory of the deceased's assets. This includes real estate, personal belongings, bank accounts, investments, and any other assets of value. Depending on the size and complexity of the estate, this process can take several weeks to a few months. In North Dakota, the executor is typically given three months from the date of their appointment to complete this inventory and submit it to the court.
  3. Communicating with Creditors: After the inventory is complete, the executor is then responsible for notifying all known creditors of the deceased's passing. In North Dakota, creditors are given a three-month window from the date of their notification to make claims against the estate for any debts owed.
  4. Paying Debts and Taxes: The executor must then pay off any valid claims from the estate's assets, including settling any final income taxes or estate taxes owed. Depending on the number of claims and the state of the deceased's financial affairs, this process can take anywhere from a few months to over a year.
  5. Distributing the Remaining Assets: The final step in the estate settlement process is distributing the remaining assets to the beneficiaries as outlined in the will. This can only be done once all debts and taxes have been paid. If there are no disputes among the beneficiaries, this step can be completed relatively quickly, often within a few weeks.

Remember, these timelines are merely estimates and can vary greatly based on individual circumstances. For instance, if a will is contested or the estate is large or complex, the process can be delayed by months or even years. While the executor's goal is to settle the estate as efficiently as possible, patience and diligence are key in this often lengthy process.

How Do You Know When an Estate is Settled:

An estate is considered settled when the executor has completed a series of tasks: submitting the will to probate court, inventorying the estate, notifying and paying off creditors, settling any taxes owed, and distributing the remaining assets according to the will. Beneficiaries should receive a final accounting from the executor, which is a document detailing all of the financial transactions made on behalf of the estate.

In North Dakota, once the final accounting is reviewed and approved by the probate court, the executor can file a “petition for discharge”, which officially releases them from their duties. Upon approval of this petition, the estate is officially considered settled. This final confirmation ensures beneficiaries that the estate settlement process has been completed.

What to Do If You Think The Executor Is Taking Too Long:

While it's true that settling an estate can be a lengthy process, there may be instances when an executor is not fulfilling their duties in a timely or efficient manner. If you, as a beneficiary, have concerns about this, there are steps you can take. Start by communicating openly with the executor – they may be able to provide a reasonable explanation for the delays. If direct communication doesn't resolve the issue, you can request an accounting of the estate, which is a report detailing the financial actions taken by the executor on behalf of the estate.

If these steps fail to bring about a satisfactory resolution, North Dakota law allows beneficiaries to petition the probate court for the removal and replacement of an executor who is not adequately performing their duties. However, this action should be considered a last resort, as it can add further delays and complications to the estate settlement process. Always consult with an estate planning attorney before taking this step.