Estate Planning 101

How Long Does an Executor Have to Settle an Estate in Maryland

In this article, we'll look at how long an Executor has to settle an estate in Maryland. We'll look at the milestones and due dates, as well as factors that impact timelines and how to know when an estate is officially 'settled'.)
October 6, 2023

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The process of settling an estate, or probate, is a vital responsibility assigned to an executor following the death of a loved one. In Maryland, this involves a series of detailed steps such as validating the will of the deceased, cataloging their assets, settling any outstanding debts and taxes, and eventually distributing the remaining assets to the beneficiaries listed in the will. The period of this process can vary widely, often taking anywhere from a few months to over a year, depending on factors like the complexity and size of the estate, the clarity of the will, and whether or not the probate process is contested.

The Estate Settlement Timeline:

Each stage of settling an estate in Maryland has its own general timeline. Here, we will break down each stage to give a more comprehensive understanding of the duration of the entire process:

  1. Submitting the Will: In Maryland, the executor, also referred to as the personal representative, is expected to submit the will to probate court as soon as possible after the death of the testator (the person who made the will). While Maryland law doesn't provide a specific deadline, it is generally advisable to submit the will within a month to prevent unnecessary delays in the probate process.
  2. Inventorying the Estate: After the will has been submitted, the executor is required to compile a comprehensive inventory of the deceased's assets, including real estate, personal belongings, bank accounts, investments, and any other assets of value. The duration of this process can range from a few weeks to several months, depending on the size and complexity of the estate. In Maryland, the executor is generally given three months from the date of their appointment to submit this inventory to the court.
  3. Communicating with Creditors: Once the inventory is complete, the executor is responsible for notifying all known creditors of the deceased's passing. In Maryland, creditors have a six-month window from the date of the executor's appointment to submit claims against the estate for any debts owed.
  4. Paying Debts and Taxes: After notifying the creditors, the executor is then tasked with paying off any valid claims from the estate's assets. This includes settling any final income taxes or estate taxes owed. Depending on the number of claims and the state of the deceased's financial affairs, this process can take a few months to over a year.
  5. Distributing the Remaining Assets: The final step in the estate settlement process is distributing the remaining assets to the beneficiaries as outlined in the will. This can only be done once all debts and taxes have been paid. If there are no disputes among the beneficiaries, this step can typically be completed within a few weeks.

It's important to remember that these timelines are just average estimates and can vary significantly based on individual circumstances. For instance, if a will is contested, the probate process can be delayed by months or even years. Also, if the estate is particularly large or complex, it may take longer to inventory and distribute the assets. While it's the responsibility of the executor to settle the estate efficiently, the process often requires patience and diligence.

How Do You Know When an Estate is Settled:

An estate is officially considered settled when the executor has completed a series of tasks: submitting the will to probate court, inventorying the estate, notifying and paying off creditors, settling any taxes owed, and distributing the remaining assets according to the will. Beneficiaries should receive a final accounting from the executor, which is a document detailing all of the financial transactions made on behalf of the estate.

In Maryland, once the probate court reviews and approves this final accounting, the executor can file a “petition for discharge”, which officially releases them from their duties. Upon approval of this petition, the estate is officially considered settled. This final confirmation ensures beneficiaries that the estate settlement process has been completed.

What to Do If You Think The Executor Is Taking Too Long:

While it is understood that settling an estate can be a lengthy process, there may be instances when an executor is not fulfilling their duties in a timely or efficient manner. If you, as a beneficiary, have concerns about this, you do have recourse. Start by communicating your concerns with the executor – they may be able to provide a reasonable explanation for the delays. If communication doesn't resolve the issue, you are within your rights to request an accounting of the estate - a report detailing the financial actions taken by the executor on behalf of the estate.

If you're still unsatisfied after these steps, Maryland law allows beneficiaries to petition the probate court for the removal and replacement of an executor who is not adequately performing their duties. This should be considered a last resort, as it can further complicate and delay the estate settlement process. It is always recommended to consult with an estate planning attorney before taking this action.